Saturday, November 15, 2008

9 - AIIMS november 2008 microbiology mcqs

63. biosaftey precaution grade iii is practiced in all except?

a. human influenza virus 
b. st louis encephalitis virus 
c. coxiella burnetti 
d. mycobacterium tuberculosis 


64. most common species of pseudomonas causing intravenous cathrter related infections? 

a. p. cepacia 
b. p.areuginosa 
c. p.maltiphila 
d. p.mallei


65. most sensitive diagnostic test for dengue is?

 a. Ig M elisa 
b. cft 
c. tissue culture 
d. electron microscopy 


66. a gardener has multiple vesicles on hand and multiple eruption s along the lymphatics. most common fungus responsible is?

a. sporothrix shenkii 
b. cladosporium 
c. histoplasma 
d. candida 


67. which is not a rna virus?

 a. ebola 
b. simian 40 
c. rabies 
d. vesicular stomatitis virus 


68. true about prion is? 

a. are virus coded 
b. cause misfolding of proteins 
c. cleave protein 
d. defect in folding of proteins 


69. all are true about bacteriophage except?

a. helps in transduction of bacteria 

b.  imparts toxigenicity to bacteria 

c. can transper chromosomal gene 



70: girl from shimla presented to opd with fever malaise and axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy.culture shows stalactite growth.causative organism is? 

a. yersinia pestis 
b. francisella 
c. pseudomonas 



71.true about carbohydrate antigen are all except? 

a. has low immunogenicity 
b. memory response seen 
c. causes polyclonal b cell stimulation 
d. does not stimulate T cell


72.mechanism of action of pertusis toxin is? 

a. adp ribosylation 
d. acts through g alpha subunit 


 73.which of the following is true about isotypic variation? 

a. subtle amino acid changes due to allelic differences 
b. changes in aa heavy and light chain in variable region 
c. changes in heavy n light chain in constant region responsible for class and subtype 
d. these are areas in antigen that bind specifically to antibody 


74.true about hybridoma technique are all except ? 

a. narmal activated b cellsmyeloma cells 
b. myeloma cells selective mutation in salvage pathway, vigorous proliferation in hat medium 
c. thymidine kinase and hgprt catalyse he salvage pathway 
d. aminopterin a folic antagonist, inhibits de novo nucleotide synthesis 


 to view all the 200 AIIMS november 2008 mcqs click here

Monday, October 27, 2008

8 - Dermatomycoses

1. Dermatomycoses are cutaneous mycoses caused by three genera of fungi namely microsporum, epidermophyton and trichophyton . these infections are called tinea or ringworm , a misnomer that has persisted from the days when they were thought to be caused by worms or lice .

2. tinea capitis ( ring worm of the scalp ) is due to an infection with MICROSPORUM CANIS or TRICHOPHYTON TONSURANS. It usuall occurs during childhood and heals spontaneously at puberty. Circular areas on the scalp with broken or no hair , are characteristic of this disorder.

3. Tinea corporis ( ring worm of the body ) is caused by MICROSPORUM CANIS or TRICHOPHYTON MENTAGROPHYTES . this disorder affects smooth skin and and produces circular pruritic rashes of redness and scaling .

4. Both tinea cruris ( ring worm of the groin , “ jock itch “ )and tinea pedis ( ring worm of the foot ) are caused by TRICHOPHYTON RUBRUM , TRICHOPHYTON MENTAGROPHYTES or EPIDERMOPHYTON FLOCCOSUM. These common conditions are pruritic and can cause scaling .

5. Tinea versicolor ( pityriasis versicolor ) is not a dermatophytic condition but, rather , a superficial mycosis now thought to be caused by MALASEZZIA FURFUR . the disorder is characterized by chronic but asymptomatic scaling on the trunk , arms or other parts of the body .

Wednesday, July 16, 2008

7 - microbiology basics (mcqs)

1. Name some Gram positive cocci.
- Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Micrococcus spp and Enterococcus spp.

2. Name some Gram positive bacilli.
- Clostridium spp, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Bacillus spp, Listeria sp and Lactobacillus sp.

3. Name some Gram negative bacilli.
- Escherichia coli, Shigella sp, Klebsiella sp, Pseudomonas sp, Vibrio sp and Haemophilus sp.

4. Name some aerobes.
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas sp, Micrococcus sp and Acinetobacter sp.

5. Name some obligate anaerobes.
- Clostridium sp, Bacteroides sp and Prevotella sp.

6. Name some facultative anaerobes.
- Staphylococcus aureus and members of Enterobacteriaceae.

7. Name some microaerophilic bacteria.
- Campylobacter sp and Helicobacter sp.

8. Name the capnophilic bacteria.
- Brucella abortus (5 -10% CO2), Pneumococcus, Haemophilus sp and Neisseria sp.

9. Name some motile bacilli.
- Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella sp and Proteus sp.

10. Name some non-motile bacilli.
- Klebsiella spp and Shigella spp.

11. Name some capsulated bacteria.
- Klebsiella sp, Pneumococcus, Neisseria meningitidis, Bacillus anthracis, Haemophilus influenzae type b and Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

12. What are the different arrangements of flagella?
- Monotrichous, Lophotrichous, Amphitrichous and Peritrichous.

13. Name some spore bearing bacteria.
- Bacillus spp (aerobic) and Clostridium spp (anaerobic).

14. Name some pigment-producing bacteria.
- Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcens, Chromobacterium violaceum, Prevotella melaninogenica, photochromogens and scotochromogens of Mycobacterium.

15. What is bacterial cell wall made up of?
- Peptidoglycan (mucopeptide).

16. Name bacteria that cannot be stained by Gram’s stain.
- Mycobacterium sp, Chlamydiae, Rickettsiae, Treponema sp, Leptospira sp and Calymmatobacterium granulomatis.

17. Name some bacteria that can not be cultured on artificial culture medium.
- Mycobacterium leprae, Chlamydiae, Rickettsiae, Calymmatobacterium granulomatis and Treponema sp.

18. Name some β–haemolytic bacteria.
- Staphylococcus aureus, Group A & B Streptococcus and Listeria sp.

19. Name some α–haemolytic bacteria.
- Pneumococcus, Viridans Streptococci and some species of Enterococcus.

20. What are “coliforms” and “paracolons”?
- Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp, which inhabit the intestine are called coliforms. Paracolon is an old term, earlier referred to non-lactose fermenting enteric bacteria other than Salmonella sp, Shigella sp and Proteus sp. They include Enterobacter sp, Citrobacter sp, Hafnia sp etc.

21. What is the normal flora of intestine?
- Bacteroides sp, Escherichia coli, Clostridium sp etc.

22. What is the normal flora of skin?
- Staphylococcus epidermidis, Diphtheroids and Propionibacterium sp.

23. Name some fastidious bacteria.
- Haemophilus sp, Streprococcus sp, Brucella sp, Bordetella sp and Mycobacterium sp.

24. What are Protoplasts, spheroplasts and L-forms?
- Gram positive bacteria without cell wall forms protoplast while gram negative bacteria forms spheroplast. When such forms are able to multiply they are termed L-forms.

25. Name the bacteria that totally lack cell wall.
- Mycoplasma sp and Ureaplasma sp.

26. What is the significance of L–forms?
- They may remain latent in the body, are refractive to antibiotics against cell wall synthesis and causes relapse of infection.

27. How do bacteria multiply?
- Binary fission.

28. What is the nature of bacterial capsule?
- Usually the capsule is made up of polysaccharide, but in Bacillus anthracis the capsule is made up of ployglutamic acid (protein).

Thursday, July 10, 2008

6 - dienes phenomenon

Proteus is a genus of bacteria in the family of Enterobacteriaceae. Proteus species are famous for their swarming on solid culture media.

When different Proteus species swarm towards each other, a line of inhibited growth results where strains meet. This was first observed in 1946 by Dienes and is referred to as the Dienes phenomenon. This line of inhibited growth results from the production of and sensitivity to different types of bacteriocins, namely, proticines, produced by different strains of Proteus species.

If two strains were able to detect different proticines produced by a neighbor, there would be growth inhibition and the formation of a Dienes line. Alternatively, if no proticine difference were detected, the neighboring swarmer would be recognized as "self" and the swarms would interact.

This phenomenon is of value in differentiating the two strains of Proteus for epidemiological purposes.

Thursday, February 14, 2008

5 - Human Herpesvirus (HHV) classification

Human Herpesvirus (HHV) classification

Type Synonym Subfamily Pathophysiology
HHV-1 Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) α (Alpha) Oral and/or genital herpes (predominantly orofacial)
HHV-2 Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) α Oral and/or genital herpes (predominantly genital)
HHV-3 Varicella zoster virus(VZV) α Chickenpox and Shingles
HHV-4 Ebstein barr virus (EBV), lymphocryptovirus γ (Gamma)

Infectious mononucleosis,Burkitt's lymphoma, CNS lymphoma in AIDS patients,
post-transplant lymphoproliferative syndrome (PTLD), nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
HHV-5 cytomegalovirus (CMV) β (Beta)
Infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome, retinitis, etc.
HHV-6, -7 roseolo virus
β Sixth disease (roseola infantum or exanthem subitum)

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus
(KSHV), a type of rhadinovirus

Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, some types of multicentric Castleman's disease

Monday, January 14, 2008

4 - microbiology mcqs - 31 to 40

11) Urease producing all except

a. H. pylori

b. Salmonella

c. Klebsilla

d. proteus

Answer : b) Salmonella

Reference: Microbiology 7th Edition Pages 290

12) Vibrio Cholera usually is transported using

a. VR Medium

b. BSA Medium

c. GTTA Medium

d. None of the above

Answer : a) VR medium

Reference: Microbiology 7th Edition Page 306

13) An example of Double Stranded RNA virus is

a. Reo

b. Rhabdovirus

c. Polio Virus

d. None of the above

Answer : 448

Reference: Microbiology 7th Edition Page

14) All of the following are non Enveloped DNA virus except

a. Herpes virus

b. Adeno virus

c. Parvo virus

d. Papavovirus

Answer : a) Herpes virus

Reference: Microbiology 7th Edition Page 446

15) About Ancylostoma all are true except

a. Also called as hook worm

b. Causes Anemia

c. All infections are symptomatic

d. Related with ground itch

Answer : All infections are symptomatic

Reference: Harrison 15th Edition Chapter 220

16) Lyme’s disease is caused by

a. borrelia burgdoferi

b. COxilla burnetti

c. Leptospirosis

d. None of the above

Answer : a) Borrelia Burgdoferi

Reference: Microbiology 7th Edition Page 389

17) Graft from genetically identical member of same species is

a. Allograft

b. Autograft

c. Isograft

d. Xenograft

Answer : c) Isograft

Reference: Microbiology 7th Edition Page 177

18) A man has inhaled actinomycoses vulgaris (Thermoactinomycosis). He will develop

a. Farmer’s lung

b. Byssionosis

c. Baggassosis

d. Anthracosis

Answer : a) Farmer’s Lung

Reference: Harrison 15th Edition Chapter 250

19) Mc Conkey medium is an example of

a. Transport medium

b. Differential Medium

c. Selective medium

d. Simple medium

Answer : B) Differential Medium

Reference: Microbiology 7th Edition Page 37

20) Painless diarrhea occurs in

a. Viral diseases

b. Campylobacter diarrhoea

c. Shigella

d. Cholera

Answer : d) Cholera

Reference: Harrison 15th Edition Chapter 159

3 - microbiology mcqs - 21 to 30

21) Reactivity of false positive VDRL in Acute Malaria is

a. 10 to 20 %

b. 10 to 30 %

c. 50 %

d. 100 %

Answer : ??

Reference: Microbiology 7th Edition Page

22) Calabar Swelling is seen in

a. loa loa

b. Manso

c. Wucherchia bancrofti

d. Brugui malayi

Answer : a) Loa loa

Reference: Harrison 15th Edition Chapter 221

23) Bacteria in air first demonstrated by

a. Louis Pasteur

b. Lister

c. Ronald Ross

d. Koch’s

Answer : a) Louis Pasteur

Reference: Microbiology 7th Edition Page 2

24) All are contributions of Louis Pasteur except

a. Sterilisation

b. Vaccine for Rabies

c. Vaccine for anthrax

d. Vaccine for Tuberculosis

Answer : d) Vaccine for Tuberculosis

Reference: Microbiology 7th Edition Page 2

25) Sereny test is positive in

a. Enteropathogenic E.Coli

b. Entero invasive E.Coli

c. enterotoxic E.Coli

d. verotoxic E.Coli

Answer : b) Enetero Invasive E.Coli

Reference: Microbiology 7th Edition Page 279

26) The main clinically significatnt Toxin produced by C.diphteria is

a. Exotoxin

b. Endotoxin

c. Both

d. None

Answer : a) Exotoxin

Reference: Microbiology 7th Edition Page 233

27) Inverted fir tree appearance in stab culture is seen with

a. Bacillus Anthracis

b. Brucella

c. Bordetella

d. None

Answer : a) Bacillus Anthrax

Reference: Microbiology 7th Edition Page 243

28) Fastidious organism are grown by

a. prolonging incubation time

b. and performing special subcultures

c. both

d. none

Answer : c) both

Reference: Harrison 15th Edition Chap 126

29) Virus causing Hemorrhagic conjunctivtitis virus is

a. Arbovirus

b. Entero Virus 70

c. Rabies virus

d. Herpes Virus

Answer : b) Enterovirus 70

Reference: Harrison 15th Edition Chapter 193

30) Most Common organism causing nosocomial infection is hospital acquired pneumonia

a. Pseudomonas

b. Staph aureus

c. Streptococcus

d. Both A and B

Answer : d) both a and B

Reference: Harrison 15th Edition Chap 255

2 - microbiology mcqs - 11 to 20

11) Hepatitis B is a

a. Single Stranded DNA Virus

b. Double Stranded DNA Virus

c. Single Stranded RNA Virus

d. Double Stranded RNA Virus

Answer : (B) Double Stranded DNA Virus

Refernce: Ananthanarayanan 7th Edition Page 550

Ä All DNA Viruses are Double Stranded except Parvovirus which is a Single stranded DNA Virus

Ä All RNA Viruses are Single Stranded except Reovirus which is a Double stranded DNA Virus

12) Hepatitis C Virus is transmitted by

a. Blood products

b. Food

c. Air

d. None of the above

Answer (a) Blood Products

Reference: Ananthanarayanan 7th Edition Page 557

13) Shape of Rabies Virus

a. Ball Shaped

b. Egg Shaped

c. Bullet Shaped

d. Boat shaped

Answer (c) Bullet shaped

Reference: Ananthanarayanan 7th Edition Page 535

14) The drug that is not commonly given for Pneumococcal Pneumonia is

a. Penicillin

b. Gentamycin

c. Erythromycin

d. Cefotaxime

Answer : (b) Gentamycin

Reference: Harrison 16th Edition Page 810

15) Prozone Phenomenon is seen in cases of

a. Antibody Excess

b. Antigen Excess

c. Both

d. None

Answer (A) Antibody Excess

Reference: Ananthanarayanan 7th Edition Page 95

Note : Antigen Excess is Post Zone

16) Allergy and Anaphylaxis are due to

a. IgE

b. IgA

c. IgG

d. Ig M

Answer (a) IgE

Reference: Ananthanarayanan 7th Edition Page 90

17) Paul Bannel Test uses

a. Sheep RBC

b. Foul RBC

c. Guinea Pig RBC

d. Human RBC

Answer (a) Sheep RBC

Reference: Ananthanarayanan 7th Edition Page 99, 484

18) Protein Structure is found using

a. Southern Blot

b. Northen Blot

c. Western blot

d. Any of the above

Answer : C) Western blot

Reference: Ananthanarayanan 7th Edition Page 592

19) Nagler reaction is due to

a. Cl.Welchi

b. Pseudomonas

c. Streptococcus

d. Mycobacteria

Answer (a) Cl.welchi

Reference: Ananthanarayanan 7th Edition Page 250

20) Gamma carboxylation of Glutamic acid residues require

a. Ca++

b. Na+

c. K+

d. Cl-

Answer (a) Ca++ ions

Reference: KDTripathi 5th Edition Page 564

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